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THE OVERHEAD LINE

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The electric tram in cities is already an old phenomenon.
Many Dutch cities had or still have an electric tram.
This also goes for my example, the Gemeente Tram Nijmegen, G.T.N for short.
Emc 28 is at the terminus of line 2 at the Berg en Dalseweg in Nijmegen, in 1952 (photo E.J. Bouwman)
Inspired by the simple equipment and line structure, an electric tram also runs on the garden railway and, just like the example, also runs on working overhead lines.

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The electric tram on the garden railway is a derivative of the tram that once ran in Nijmegen, but could just as easily have been an Arnhem model.

Why a Nijmegen tram?

The G.T.N. had routes that were quite steep, the railcars had heavier engines than normal in city trams, rail brakes and a higher voltage of 800V on the overhead line.

There are also slopes on the garden railway and overhead lines are a nice addition.

As a model of a city tram of manufacturer L.G.B., this model has been in the collection for many years and it is a valuable object to convert to your own vision.

This also applies to my model, which has been adjusted so far it has a 30mm larger pantograph then L.G.B. standard fits on these models.
The balconies have all been closed, the light cover has been removed and the motor vehicle has double headlights.

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G.T.N. electric tram 31 drives over the viaduct at Berg en Dal, while tram 30 + 103 drives beneath on the road to Berg en Dal terminus near Nijmegen, July 11, 1952 (photo J.J. Overwater)

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The photo above shows some comparison with what used to be like riding the electric tram

from Nijmegen, via Beek, to Berg en Dal.

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A temporary car rode on the maintenance tram, on which an original L.G.B. pantograph was mounted with a widened contact strip, which held the new contact wire in place during soldering.
At the front on a L.G.B. outrigger, an 8-shaped eyelet is mounted, on which the contact wire hangs.
Because the original L.G.B. system has some limitations, including the span of a maximum of 2 tracks, we quickly looked at another system.
A little further on, a cross wire has been stretched between two loose masts on which the contact wire was to hang, the 8-eyes are also hanging there, although not yet positioned.
In this way, a maximum of 4 tracks could be spanned.

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Because the pantographs were enlarged and the L.G.B. overhead line hung too low for that, a different system had to be designed.
Above the height difference between the original L.G.B. mast right and 
the new mast type according to my own design on the left.
Clearly visible is the 8-shaped eyelet on which the contact wire hung, with 
new masts this has been replaced by a pulling pipe (outrigger).
The drag piece of the B.B.C. pantograph presses against the 8-shaped eyelet of
 G.T.N. railcar 9.

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In the new situation, the pantograph is 28mm higher against the drawbar, which gives a more natural image.
Because the pull pipe can be mounted over the entire width of the bracket, it enlarges 
the flexibility of the overhead line system.

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The left plan shows the design for the new overhead line masts.

The concept is quite simple: made from one rod of 1 meter and 6mm thick metal bar two masts can be made.

The bracket is made of 1.5mm straith welding wire and the wire with which the bracket is held in place, is made of 1mm copper wire.

The whole is placed on a piece of tube at the bottom (internal 6mm) and is held in place by a soldered 6mm ring as a base.

The bottom 15 cm sticks into the soil (this is more than enough).

The mast itself therefore protrudes 35 cm above ground level.

If desired, the mast bracket can be placed at the very top with a minor modification, over which a hanging wire is hung for catenary with chain suspension.

The right drawing shows a mounted mast with a double boom.

It can clearly be seen that the base of the mast is considerably lower than on the

drawing underneathtop of rail is indicated.

This difference is 28mm.

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There are various types of pantographs to extract the electrical energy from the contact wire.

Or, if you prefer, pan, panto, or even Lyra bow collector.

These instrumente ensures the transmission of power to the traction vehicle

an even pressure against the contact wire.

There are specific values for this, which I am not aware of.

The type of pantograph, such as the Brown Boveri Compagnie S.A. above is Swiss made.

This type was on most G.T.N. cars then and still are today

can be seen on some museum wagons of the H.T.M.

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Right inset: a S.S.W. type B bracket

at the H.T.M. 816

Another widely used type of a diamond-shaped, electric-rod pantograph on old tram cars was the S.S.W. type B.

S.S.W. is a short for Siemens Schuckert Werke A.G.

This pantograph had a hinged carrying bracket for the drag piece, also called a wedge piece.

The model of the G.T.N. 9 is currently equipped with this, until two identical Lyra brackets are available.

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Left insert: another S.S.W. type B bracket, this time on locomotive 50 of the N.B.M.

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The photo above was taken on the turning loop around the depot, where G.T.N. 9 with

trailer 107 is on its way to the stop.

On the roof the S.S.W. type B bracket.

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The photo above is the advertisement photo  of the B.S.M. motor tram.

Because this was originally an electric tram, there is a Lyra bow collector on the roof.

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Due to the greater engine power and the therefore higher energy consumption of the traction motors, the G.T.N. emu were equipped with two Lyra bow collectors.

The contact wire was hung higher at the end points, so that these Lyra bow collectors stood almost upright.

When the motor vehicle started the journey back in the opposite direction, the brackets automatically folded over.

It was lowered with leather straps, which were attached to both bow collectors at half height.

G.T.N. 8 (still with the old 'Jugendstil' painting) on the Grote Markt in Nijmegen, on it's way

on line 1 from Hengstdal to St. Anna, via Stationsplein in 1938.

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